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The Reina Beater
Your Reina beater is a traditional style beater whose design harks back to the paper beaters made in Holland in the 1600’s. It is made entirely from non-corrosive materials such as stainless steel, bronze, and brass to help produce archival pulp. The machine is designed such that the roll is always held at a perfect parallel distance from the bedplate. This avoids misalignment and provides efficient beating. The bedplate is stationary and the roll moves up and down to vary the beating.
SETTING UP YOUR BEATER
You will only need to unfasten one or two of the crate sides to remove the machine. Unbolt the four legs from the floor of the crate. (use 9/16” wrenches) Two strong people can lift the machine off the floor of the crate.
Before shipping your machine was assembled, tested and calibrated. There are only one or two items, which you will need to attach to the machine.
The first item may be the four casters (if your machine was ordered with this option.) Remove the nut and lockwasher from the threaded stem of each castor. Have an assistant tilt the machine to one side and put the threaded stem through the holes in the bottom of the legs. Install the lockwasher and nut and tighten the castor in place. (Use an 11/16′ or adjustable wrench)
The other item is the crank handle. We suggest leaving the crank handle off until the machine is in its studio space. This will make it easier to pass through doorways. To install the handle, screw the threaded stud into the crank handwheel. (use a 3/8′ open end, or adjustable wrench) Tighten the stud as firmly as possible. Apply a light coating of grease (provided with the machine), and force the handle over the stud, pushing down until the handle snaps into place.
Before running, make sure that the machine is empty of any nails, staples or other debris left over from crating.
Don’t run the machine without liquid as this may overheat and shorten the life of the seals.
Please note that as part of our assembly and calibration, we have lapped the roll and bedplate together with a carborundum abrasive. You may continue to find small amounts of this lapping grit in the tub during the running of the first few loads of pulp.
We strongly recommend only plugging the machine into an outlet equipped with a ground fault interrupter. This type of receptacle is required by many town electrical codes where high moisture or wetness is present, (such as kitchens, bathrooms, and outdoor outlets). It provides a degree of protection by sensing any electrical short and shutting off the power much faster than a household fuse or circuit breaker. The ground fault interrupter (Sometimes abbreviated to GFI) is inexpensive and is easily installed in place of the conventional wall outlet.
Always keep the clear and metal cover down and in place when switching on the machine.
The door over the motor switch should be kept in the shut position whenever the machine is turned off to prevent accidental starting.
Never reach under a cover when the machine is running.
Always add and sample pulp on the long side of the tub opposite the roll.
If children may be present in the studio, provide a lockable shutoff for the power to the beater.
MOTOR ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
To best protect the motor of your beater, the circuit breaker or fuse in the wall outlet supply, should be matched to the voltage of your machine. Beaters wired for 110 volts, should be protected with a 15 amp circuit breaker or fuse. Beaters wired for 220 volts should have a 10-amp fuse or circuit breaker.
If other appliances are running on the same circuit as the beater, the fuse or breaker can trip due to overloading. This may happen when the machine is “beating hard”, which will cause the motor to reach its maximum amperage. Then you must shut off the other loads on the line to run the beater. You may want to run a dedicated line from the circuit breaker box to the beater.
Extension cords can cause a voltage drop, which can eventually harm the motor. For lengths of 12’, use a 14 gauge or heavier cord. For lengths of up to 50’ the cord must be at least 12 gauge. Longer lengths are not recommended. Be sure to raise the plug and protect it from getting wet.
Install a Ground Fault Interrupter either in the receptacle or the circuit breaker supplying the beater.
MOTOR THERMAL PROTECTION
All of our machines have individual overload or thermal protection. (This is not meant to replace the main circuit breaker or fuse, only to supplement them). This thermal protection will trip and shut down the motor of the beater when there is motor overheating or excessive amperage draw. Some situations which may cause it to trip, are: (1) jamming of the roll caused by clumping of fiber under the roll. (2) extremely hard beating with the roll in a low position over the bedplate. (3) too low a voltage supplying the motor.
For your protection the motor will not restart by itself, but must be manually reset to operate. Allow the motor to cool off sufficiently; then follow the procedure below.
A) Machines wired for 110 or 220 volts at 60 cycles (60 Hz). (All U.S. models, and some export.)
First turn the regular beater switch to the off position. Next, locate the reset button which is located on the motor and can be found by following the black wires supplying the motor, to the small junction box located on the side of the motor. On one end of this junction box is the small red reset button. Make sure that whatever caused the overload situation has been corrected. (Always unplug the beater when removing jammed pulp). Firmly press the button. Regular switch should now operate beater.
B) Machines wired for 220 volt at 50 cycles (50 Hz) (Machines exported from the U.S.)
The thermal protection and reset function is part of the beater on /off switch. Make sure that whatever caused the overload situation has been corrected. (Always unplug the beater when removing jammed pulp). Push the beater switch firmly down past the normal off position to reset the switch.
In rural areas where the voltage may spike and drop, or may have low voltage, consult us for information regarding voltage stabilizers, or boost transformers.
Your Hollander will run properly for many years with the lubrication it was given during its construction. However, because it operates in a wet environment, you can lengthen its bearing life and keep its adjustment shafts turning smoothly if you lubricate the machine through the 6 grease fittings provided on the machine.
Purchase a standard large cartridge size automotive grease gun with a flexible rubber nozzle hose, from your local hardware or automotive supply house. Install the tube of grease provided with the machine into the new grease gun.
The suggestions below for lubrication are based on daily use of the machine. For less frequent use of the machine adjust the schedule accordingly.
(Note: The grease gun nozzle gets snapped over the end of the grease fitting on the machine. The nozzle must be aimed straight at the fitting in order for the grease to enter the fitting when the handle of the grease gun is pumped. To remove the nozzle twist it at a slight angle to the grease fitting and pull off the nozzle.)
Bearings-On each of the two-beater roll bearing blocks there is two grease fittings. (Between the bearing block and the tub.) The upper grease fittings lubricate the bearings. Add several shots of grease to these fittings weekly. You can add grease until you see the grease exiting out the side of the bearing. By adding a little grease weekly you can drive out any moisture which can have a detrimental effect on the inner polished surfaces of the bearings.
Roll Height Adjusting Screws-The threads of the roll height screw and its point of rotation on the chassis are lubricated through the lower fitting on each bearing. Grease these fittings once a month.
Crank Adjustment Shaft-On the underside of the beater (Just above the motor location) is two grease fittings. Grease them once a month.
(Note: New grease cartridges can be provided by us or through your local industrial or bearing supply house. The grease type required must be for ball bearings and have good water resistance.)
GREASE CARTRIDGE LOADING DIRECTIONS
C) Pull plunger back and lock the groove at end of plunger shaft into the notched groove at the back of grease gun.
D) Unscrew the handle and head of the grease gun from the cylindrical body of the grease gun.
E) Remove plastic cap from the grease cartridge tube. Place this end in gun first.
F) Remove pull tab lid from other end of cartridge.
G) Replace grease gun head.
H) Release plunger, gun is ready to pump
DIGITAL COUNTER ADJUSTMENT (Optional equipment)
The counter indicates how many times the adjusting crank has been turned, above the point where the roll actually touches the bedplate (When the counter reads zero, the roll is just touching the bedplate). To reset the zero position of the counter:
1. Unplug the beater from its electrical outlet.
2. Empty the tub and make sure the bedplate area is free of pulp.
3. Turn the roll by hand while continuously lowering the roll height with the adjusting crank. Stop when a little resistance is felt accompanied by the sound of the roll blades touching the bedplate.
4. Turn the small knob on the right side of the counter until all the numbers have cleared to zero.
The counter is now adjusted.
DRIVE BELT ADJUSTMENT AND REPLACEMENT
The drive belt will stretch slightly with use and may need to be adjusted. Also after several years of use the belt may need to be replaced. To adjust or replace the belt, first unplug the machine, then:
1. Locate the four threaded metal rods, which suspend the aluminum plate under the motor. Note that each rod has two nuts, one above the metal plate, and one below the plate.
2. Put a 9/16” wrench on both the top and bottom nut. (The top wrench must be an open end or adjustable wrench.) Loosen both nuts on each of the four rods.
3. To tension the belt, lower the bottom nut by a couple of threads and retighten the top nut against the plate. Keep the motor plate even, or parallel to the undersurface of the beater tub. (The threaded rods are all the same lengths, so observing the amount of threads remaining under the motor plate helps gauge its levelness.)
4. Test for correct tension by pressing the middle of the belt between the large beater roll pulley and the small motor pulley. The belt is correctly tensioned when it can be depressed approximately 1/2” along the middle of this span.
5. When replacing a belt, loosen and raise the four nuts on the topside of the aluminum plate, about 1 1/2” above the plate. This will allow the motor to raise enough to change the belt. Remove the large pulley cover by pulling it straight up (it may be tight), and “walk” the old drive belt out of the pulley groove by pulling the belt sideways and turning the pulley. Hook the new belt into the small pulley first, then “walk” it into the big pulley by guiding it into place and turning the pulley. Replace the cover and follow the steps above to tension the belt properly.
Excessive tension in the drive belt can cause overheating and possible failure of the roll or motor bearings.
The belt is a standard industrial machine belt. The part number is B-45. The B designation specifies the width of the belt and the 45 is the length. New belts can be ordered through us or can be found in most neighborhoods from industrial supply houses. (Look in your Yellow pages under Power Transmission Products or Bearing Supply Houses).
The following information about the operation of the Reina has been furnished by Carriage House Handmade Paper Works, based upon the experience of Elaine and Donna Koretsky in using the Reina Beater. However, they do not assume responsibility for results obtained by other papermakers in the use of those procedures described. Also note: these directions are specific for the Reina beater, and may not apply to other kinds of papermaking beaters.
OPERATION OF REINA BEATER
1. Unplug the beater and determine the zero point of the roll; that is, the point at which the roll of the beater comes into contact with the bedplate. This is done in the following way. Lower the roll, by turning the handle counter- clockwise and at the same time turn the roll by hand until you feel resistance and hear the roll blades touching the bedplate blades. At that point, set the digital counter, if your beater has one, to zero. If you do not have a digital counter, then simply be aware of that point, and count revolutions of the handle for the rest of the instructions. Each complete revolution of the handle corresponds to “1” on the digital counter (although the counter itself is further divided into tenths).
2. Plug in the beater, and fill it about 2/3 with water.
3. Set the beater to 30 (that is, 30 complete revolutions of the crank clockwise). Turn on the beater, and while it is operating, with the water circulating, feed in the pulp slowly. The pulp (or fiber) should have been prepared previously, in a manner determined by its type.
Pre-preparation of pulp or fiber: There are many different types of materials that may be used in a beater, each of which may require a different form of preparation before beating, particularly where specific qualities of paper are desired. The following is meant to be very general about preparation prior to beating. We’ll mention three kinds of materials, namely:
a. Rag, either linen or cotton.
b. Half- stuff, in the form of dry sheets of pulp, which might be abaca (also called Manila hemp), sisal, cotton linters, cotton rag half- stuff, or flax tow half-stuff.
c. Raw fiber, such as flax or hemp.
Rag should be cut into small pieces, and the tougher or more closely woven the rag, the smaller should be the pieces. We usually make pieces between 1/2” to 1 1/4” squares. If you are cutting up used clothing, be sure that no snaps, pins, staples, zippers, buttons, or any other extraneous materials remain in the cloth. Cut apart any seams, so that all the fabric is a single thickness. Weigh the dry fiber, and then soak the amount you are planning to beat. We usually soak it for several hours, preferably overnight.
Half-stuff, regardless of which kind, should be soaked for a few hours: then pull apart the wet pulp into small pieces as the beater is loaded.
Raw fiber is often cooked or retted first, but that depends on the type of paper you want to produce. For purposes of these directions, we only want to mention that the fiber should be cut into short pieces first, about 1/2”(especially if there’s no cooking of it), then soaked overnight.
Summary of preparation: Weigh out the dry pulp or fiber first. The capacity of the Reina beater is about two pounds of dry pulp, but this can vary depending upon the type of pulp or fiber. Secondly, soak the pulp or fiber for several hours.
4. You may notice, as you feed the pulp into the beater, that after a pound or so is added, the water level appears lower. Add more water, as necessary, to bring the level back up.
5. When all the pulp is in the beater, and circulating around, start to turn down the roll closer to the bedplate. Bring the roll down to about 10 crank revolutions over the bedplate (if you have a digital counter, it will be at 10). Depending on what is in the beater, you may start to hear the beater “thumping” at this stage. Then we usually let the pulp circulate for about five minutes, and turn it down to about 5. We wait another five minutes, and turn it down to about 2. Generally, if you are using half stuff, then the roll can be lowered quickly. We have found it takes longer to lower the roll when beating rag. It takes nearly an hour for the rag to be reduced to a thready stage, at which point real beating starts. Different pulp/fibers need to be beaten differently. It is important to experiment yourself to make a pulp that suits your specific needs. (See instruction #7)
Potential problems: If the flow of water and pulp slows down and stops, it usually means that the beater is jamming. Raise the roll immediately, which should free up the jammed pulp. Then continue to lower the roll toward the bedplate slowly, as before. If raising the roll does not unjam the pulp, TURN OFF THE MOTOR AND UNPLUG THE BEATER. Turn the roll up to about 30, and try to revolve the roll. If it is stuck, then you have to put your hand into the area of the roll and pull out any jammed fiber. Rotating the roll in the opposite direction that it normally turns can also clear a jam. (Turn it counterclockwise, when viewed from the crank side). Beater jams don’t normally happen with half–stuff. Another problem we have encountered is when too much pulp has been added to the beater, which shows up when the circulation is extremely sluggish. Taking out some pulp easily rectifies this. However, sometimes the circulation is sluggish because there is too much water in the beater. Simply take some water out until the pulp starts to circulate.
6. When the roll is fairly close to the bedplate, then the true beating begins (See instruction #7 below); and it is a good idea to time the beating, in order to duplicate your results in the future. In order to produce a pulp that will make a useable paper that shows consistent formation, without lumps, knots, etc., we usually beat for an hour. (Though this can vary considerably) Test the pulp at various times, however, to gauge what is happening. Test by taking out a large pinch of the stuff and put it into a jar of water. Shake the jar vigorously, and see if the pulp is dispersing without lumps and knots.
7. There are many variations of beating, each of which produces a different sort of pulp, and resulting paper. Only practice and observation on the part of the papermaker will determine just how to beat a particular fiber in order to produce the type of paper desired. You have to experiment with how close to bring the roll to the bedplate during the beating cycle. We can make a few general statements, as follows:
The longer you beat the pulp, the slower the drainage of the pulp becomes. This is evident when you form a sheet of paper. When the water drains from the mold, it may do so quickly, or take a rather long time. Longer beating usually produces a crisper paper, with a rattle to it.
The closer the roll is to the bedplate, the more cutting of the fiber takes place. If you want to keep the fiber longer, then beat with a greater distance between the roll and the bedplate.
Another factor in fiber length is the ratio of pulp to water in the beater. With a lower consistency of pulp (that is, less pulp to water), the more cutting action takes place, with resulting decrease in fiber length.
Prolonged beating (at least 8 hours) can create a paper that has greater translucency, greater density, and less absorbency. However, with some fibers, greater shrinkage also results, and special care must be taken in drying if flat paper is desired. The paper must be dried under restraint to avoid shrinkage and cockle.
8. When the beating is finished, raise the roll back up to about 30, turn off the motor, and pull the stopper. As the pulp drains, you can briefly turn on the beater to facilitate drainage. The last of the pulp can be flushed out with a stream of water. Be sure to flush out the area between the roll and the bedplate.
9. Clean the beater when you are finished for the day. Use a high –pressure stream of water to clean the area between the roll and bedplate.
10. Additives: Sizing, colorants, and other substances can be added to the pulp toward the end of the beating cycle, with the roll raised somewhat. Many papermakers, however, prefer to add these substances after the pulp is removed from the beater, as some of the additives cause excessive foaming. The pulp can simply be collected in a barrel, and the additives mixed in manually. This also makes clean-up of the beater far easier.
WARNING! And further suggestions
1. Always unplug the beater from its electrical source when you are cleaning the beater or otherwise working on it.
2. Feed the beater from the side of the beater opposite the roll. This will keep your hands away from the intake side of the roll. Standing in front of the roll, where the controls are located (i.e., the off-on switch and the crank for raising and lowering the roll), feed the beater on the opposite side, or from the right end of the beater (the same end as the drain).
3. Keep the beater in a location where there is no risk of foreign objects falling into the beater. In other words, don’t put a shelf over the beater area, where vibration could cause an object to fall off the shelf into your beater.
4. If you have to use an extension cord for the beater, be sure it is a heavy–duty one (14 gauge up top 25’, 12 gauge 25-50’), with a 3-prong grounded plug, similar to what has been provided with the Reina beater.
5. Remember that clockwise direction of the crank raises the roll; counterclockwise lowers the roll.
6. FINAL WARNING; The beater is a valuable tool for the papermaker, but must be treated with caution. Any mechanical devise that can break down fibers and produce pulp is potentially hazardous. Familiarize yourself with the machine while the motor is off and it is unplugged. Do not permit anyone to use the machine that is not thoroughly familiar with its operation.
The Reina beater is warranted against defective materials or workmanship one year from the date of original purchase. This warranty covers all defects incurred in normal use of the beater and does not cover damage due to abuse, mishandling or failure to follow operating instructions.